What is Porosity?

Porosity is one of rock important rock properties and it is a measure of pore space in a rock.

Figure 1 – Porosity

(Ref: http://www.tulane.edu/~sanelson/images/pores.gif)

Figure 1 shows the illustration of porosity and it can be seen that grain size and distribution can affect porosity of rock.

Porosity (ɸ) is mathematically expressed as a ratio of total void space with a rock to a total volume of rock.

Porosity (ɸ) = (Vp ÷ Vb) × 100

Where;

Vp = pore volume

Vb = bulk volume of rock

Porosity (ɸ) is shown in percentage form. Continue reading

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Rotary Friction Welding for Oilfield Drill Pipe

This is very interesting to see how the body of drill pipe and tool joint together using the rotary friction welding.

The friction welding or FRW is solid-state welding process which generates the heat using the friction between the work pieces in relative motion to each other, with addition of lateral force known as “upset” in order to displace and fuse materials plastically. Technically, no melt takes place and in the traditional sense friction welding isn’t a process of welding, rather it is a forging technique. Because of similarities between traditional welding and these techniques, it has become a commonly used term. The friction welding is used with thermoplastics and metals in a variety of automotive and aviation applications.

Benefits of Friction Welding Continue reading

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5 Steps To Heaven in Petroleum Geology

The 5 Steps to Heaven, which are source, migration, reservoir, seal and trap, is one of the most important concepts of petroleum geology. This tells us how petroleum was formed, migrated and trapped in a reservoir. Please note that the 5 Steps to Heaven is valid for conventional petroleum resources.

5-Step-to-Heaven

Source

Typically, organic matter from animals and plants is oxidized and turned an organic matter into carbon dioxide and water. However, if organic matter is buried rapidly, it may be preserved and can be turned into petroleum. These following conditions enhance organic matter preservation.

  • High sedimentation rate
  • Fine grain size so oxygen will not be able to penetrate and oxidize the organic matter
  • Anoxic bottom water

These conditions are mostly found in shale and fine limestone, which are common source rocks. Continue reading

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What is Top Drive System?

A top drive is a big motor system which is hoisted in a derrick or mast of a drilling rig. A top drive is a modern rotating system which has been popular for many drilling contractors and oil operators. Top drives can be used on all types of rigs, from truck-mounted rigs to offshore rigs.

top-drive-system

Rotation provided to a drill stem is accomplished by a top drive. Therefore, a Kelly and a Kelly bushing are not required for a top drive system. Moreover, a master bushing and a rotary table serves as support for slip and weight of a drill stem and as a conduit for a drill stem to be raised or lowed into a wellbore. Continue reading

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Gel Strength and Operational Impact

The gel strength is the shear stress of drilling mud that is measured at a low shear rate after the drilling mud has been static for a certain period of time. The gel strength is one of the most important drilling fluid properties because it demonstrates the ability of the drilling mud to suspend drill solid and weighting material when circulation is ceased.

gel-strenght

How can gel strength is measured?

Gel strength measurement is made on viscometer using the 3-rpm reading, which will be recorded after stirring the drilling fluid at 600 rpm to break gel. The first reading is noted after the mud is in a static condition for 10 seconds. The second reading and the third reading will be 10 minutes and 30 minutes, respectively. Continue reading

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