This is very interesting to see how the body of drill pipe and tool joint together using the rotary friction welding.
The friction welding or FRW is solid-state welding process which generates the heat using the friction between the work pieces in relative motion to each other, with addition of lateral force known as “upset” in order to displace and fuse materials plastically. Technically, no melt takes place and in the traditional sense friction welding isn’t a process of welding, rather it is a forging technique. Because of similarities between traditional welding and these techniques, it has become a commonly used term. The friction welding is used with thermoplastics and metals in a variety of automotive and aviation applications.
The 5 Steps to Heaven, which are source, migration, reservoir, seal and trap, is one of the most important concepts of petroleum geology. This tells us how petroleum was formed, migrated and trapped in a reservoir. Please note that the 5 Steps to Heaven is valid for conventional petroleum resources.
Typically, organic matter from animals and plants is oxidized and turned an organic matter into carbon dioxide and water. However, if organic matter is buried rapidly, it may be preserved and can be turned into petroleum. These following conditions enhance organic matter preservation.
High sedimentation rate
Fine grain size so oxygen will not be able to penetrate and oxidize the organic matter
Anoxic bottom water
These conditions are mostly found in shale and fine limestone, which are common source rocks. Continue reading →
A top drive is a big motor system which is hoisted in a derrick or mast of a drilling rig. A top drive is a modern rotating system which has been popular for many drilling contractors and oil operators. Top drives can be used on all types of rigs, from truck-mounted rigs to offshore rigs.
Rotation provided to a drill stem is accomplished by a top drive. Therefore, a Kelly and a Kelly bushing are not required for a top drive system. Moreover, a master bushing and a rotary table serves as support for slip and weight of a drill stem and as a conduit for a drill stem to be raised or lowed into a wellbore. Continue reading →
The gel strength is the shear stress of drilling mud that is measured at a low shear rate after the drilling mud has been static for a certain period of time. The gel strength is one of the most important drilling fluid properties because it demonstrates the ability of the drilling mud to suspend drill solid and weighting material when circulation is ceased.
How can gel strength is measured?
Gel strength measurement is made on viscometer using the 3-rpm reading, which will be recorded after stirring the drilling fluid at 600 rpm to break gel. The first reading is noted after the mud is in a static condition for 10 seconds. The second reading and the third reading will be 10 minutes and 30 minutes, respectively. Continue reading →