This is a great VDO Training about drill string components. We also added the detailed transcripts so you can learn from the VDO effectively.
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Transcription of Drill String Components
There are many components that make up the drill string as shown in this graphic. Drill pipe is a strong but relatively lightweight pipe. Crew members attach it to a top drive or Kelly. Drill pipe forms the upper part of the drill string. Usually the drill pipe rotates which also rotates the bit. Each section of pipe is called a joint. Crew members screw together or make up several joints and put them in to the hole as the bit drills.
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Many people tend to confuse between possible and positive well control indicators therefore we would like to differentiate between these two well control indicators.
Possible Well Control (kick) Indications
Possible well control (kick) indicators mean that there is possibility to get influx into wellbore. It MAYor MAY NOT be a kick.The indications can be either kick or just formation react while drilling. You need to remember that just only a single possible indicator cannot may not good enough to identify underbalanced condition in wellbore and the possible kick indicators must be used collectively. Therefore, drilling team on the rig needs to closely monitor the well and prepare appropriate action plans.
The possible well control (kick) indications are as follows;
Change in drilling breaks (ROP change) – If the differential between formation pressure and hydrostatic pressure created by drilling mud decreases, there is possibility to increase rate of penetration because the hold down effect is decreased.
Positive displacements pumps are generally used on drilling rigs to pump high pressure and high volume of drilling fluids throughout a drilling system. There are several reasons why the positive displacement mud pumps are used on the rigs.
• The pumps can work with fluids with high solid content.
• There are wide ranges for pressure and flow rate.
• They are more reliable and able to pump at tough conditions.
• They are easy to operate and maintain.
Duplex and Triplex pumps are positive displacement pumps which are commonly used in the oilfield.
Duplex pumps – 2 cylinders, double acting
Figure 1 Duplex Pump
The duplex pumps have two cylinders with double acting. It means that pistons move back and take in drilling mud through open intake valve and other sides of the same pistons, the pistons push mud out through the discharge valves.
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Drillpipe is seamless steel pipe made up in the drill string and it is the major component of the entire drillstring. Typically, 90% – 95% of the total length is drill pipe. Thread connection of drill pipe is called “Tool Joint”. One end of drill pipe has a female end which is named as “Box” (see Figure 1).
Two types of stabbing valves that must be prepared for well control are Full Opening Safety Valve (TIW valve) and Inside BOP valve (Gray Valve). We would like to describe what the differences between two valves are.
Full Opening Safety Valve or TIW valve
Full Opening Safety Valve or TIW valve is a ball valve designed for high pressure condition and it can hold pressure from both directions. It is called “Full Opening” because when the ball valve is opened; the flow path through the valve has a smooth inside diameter. One thing that you need to remember is that the term “Full Opening” does not mean that the ID of the valve is the same of drill pipe ID.
Frictional pressure is pressure loss acting in the opposite direction of fluid flow and today we will look into each component in pressure therefore you will get clearer picture about the frictional pressure in drilling system.
Let take a look at the simple diagram below.
A mud pump creates power to move drilling fluid from point A to C and the frictional pressure or pressure loss is the amount of pressure required to transfer fluid.
Pump pressure is 2,000 psi at the starting point (“A”) and at the end point (“C”), pressure is 0 psi. This tells you that you need 2,000 psi to overcome the frictional pressure in order to move the fluid from point “A” to point “C”.
“Differential pressure between two points in the system is pressure loss while fluid is moved from one to another point.”