Categories of Well Control

Well control can be categorized into three main categories which are Primary Well Control, Secondary Well Control and Tertiary Well Control. The details are shown below;

Primary Well Control

Primary Well Control is hydrostatic pressureprovided by drilling fluid more than formation pressure but less than fracture gradient while drilling. If hydrostatic pressure is less than reservoir pressure, reservoir fluid may influx into wellbore. This situation is called “Loss Primary Well Control”. Typically, slightly overbalance of hydrostatic pressure over reservoir pressure is normally desired. The basic of maintaining primary well control is to maintain hydrostatic pressure that is heavy enough to overcome formation pressure but not fracture formations.

Figure 1 - Drilling Fluid

Figure 1 – Drilling Fluid

Not only is hydrostatic pressure more than formation pressure, but also hydrostatic pressure must not exceed fracture gradient. If mud in hole is too heavy, it will cause a broken wellbore, that will result in loss circulation problem (partially lost or total lost circulation). When fluid is losing into formation, mud level in well bore will be decreased that will cause reduction in hydrostatic pressure. For the worst case scenario, hydrostatic pressure is less than formation pressure therefore wellbore influx (kick) will enter into wellbore. Continue reading