Solid Content in Drill Mud

Solid content is a fraction of the total solid in drilling mud, and it always increases while drilling ahead because of drilling solid (cuttings), mud chemical additives and weighting material. Solid content refers to soluble and insoluble solid content in the drilling fluid system.

solid-content-in-mud

There are three types of solid contents as listed below;

Soluble material such as salt
Insoluble high gravity solid (HGS) such as weighting agents (barite, calcium carbonate, hematite, etc.)
Insoluble low gravity solid (LGS) or drilled solid such as solids particles from cuttings

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Mud Filter Cake

Mud filter cake is a layer formed by solid particles in drilling mud against porous zones due to differential pressure between hydrostatic pressure and formation pressure.  For the drilling operation, it is preferred to have a filter cake that is impermeable and thin. Practically, the filter cake should be less than or equal to 1/16 inch. If drilling fluid is not in a good shape, which results in a thick filter cake in the wellbore, it will lead to a stuck pipe situation and high torque/drag.

Mud filter cake

Mud filter cake

Credit: http://gwri.calpoly.edu/media/projects_reuse_waste/corrugated/reuse_corrugated_filtercake.jpg Continue reading

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Determine Quantity of Material Used in Mixing a Simple Drilling Mud

mix-mud-simple

This is a simple example to demonstrate how to determine quantity of material required in a simple mixing system. Let’s learn from the example below.

The objective is to build mud which has a weight of 11.0 ppg with 1,000 bbl.

The mud recipe is shown below;

  • 30 ppb bentonite
  • 5 ppb CMC polymer
  • 5 ppb caustic soda (NaOH)
  • 25 ppb Na2CO3
  • Weighting Material is barite.

The following are important data of water and chemical used for this calculation.

Base fluid = fresh water

Specific gravity of water = 1

Specific gravity of barite = 4.2

Specific gravity of bentonite = 2.4

Specific gravity of CMC polymer = 2.4

Fresh water weight = 8.34 ppg

NaOH and Na3CO3 have negligible volume because it is dissolvable.

What is quantity of material required to meet the mud specification?

What is the final volume? Continue reading

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