Water phase salinity is a factor showing the activity level of salt in oil based mud. In order to control the water phase salinity, salt is added into the drilling fluid. The salt added into the system will be dissolved by water in the mud; therefore, the chloride content will increase.
By increasing the chloride concentration (adding salt), the activity level in the mud will decrease. Salt is added in order to create an activity level which is equal to or less than formation water. Therefore, the water phase in the mud will not move into formation and cause a clay swelling issue. Practically, calcium chloride (CaCl2) or sodium chloride (NaCl) is the chemical to be used.
The World’s Largest Public Oil & Gas Companies in 2016 by Forbes. This is so interesting to know that Russian companies are ranked as the first and the second biggest public oil and gas company in 2016.
Forbes’ List of the 25 Biggest Public Oil & Gas Companies
- Gazprom (GAZP, com) – Russia – 8.38 MMBoepd – EV $84.3 billion
- Rosneft (ROSN, com) – Russia – 5.07 MMBoepd – EV $72.5 billion
- ExxonMobil ( XOM, com) – USA – 4.10 MMBoepd – EV $390 billion
- PetroChina ( PTR, com) – China – 4.07 MMBoepd – EV $303 billion
- BP (BP; com) – UK – 3.24 MMBoepd – EV $121 billion
- Royal Dutch Shell (RDS.A – com) – Netherlands – 2.95 MMBoepd – EV $216 billion
- Chevron (CVX; com) – USA – 2.62 MMBoepd – EV $207 billion
- Petrobras (PBR; com) – Brazil – 2.55 MMBoepd – EV $132 billion
- Lukoil (LKOH; com) – Russia – 2.40 MMBoepd – EV $36.2 billion
- Total (TOT; com) – France – 2.35 MMBoepd – EV $136 billion
- Statoil (STO; com) – Norway – 1.81 MMBoepd – EV $63 billion
- Eni ( E; com) – Italy – 1.69 MMBoepd – EV $74 billion
- ConocoPhillips (COP; com) – USA – 1.59 MMBoepd – EV $71.5 billion
- Surgutneftegas (SGTZY; ru) – Russia – 1.49 MMBoepd – EV $8.5 billion
- CNOOC (CEO; com) – China – 1.36 MMBoepd – EV $397 billion
- China Petroleum & Chemical [Sinopec] (SNP; com) – China – 1.32 MMBoepd – EV $130 billion
- Oil and Natural Gas Corp. (ONGC; com) – India – 1.07 MMBoepd – EV $23 billion
- Anadarko Petroleum (ticker: APC; com) – USA – 840,000 Boepd – EV $43 billion
- Canadian Natural Resources (CNQ; com) – Canada – 790,000 Boepd – EV $40 billion
- Devon Energy (DVN; com) – USA – 680,000 Boepd – EV $29 billion
- Ecopetrol (EC; com) – Colombia – 670,000 Boepd – EV $33 billion
- Occidental Petroleum (OXY; com) – USA – 650,000 Boepd – EV $57 billion
- Suncor Energy (SU; com) – Canada – 580,000 Boepd – EV $50 billion
- EOG Resources (EOG; com) – USA – 570,000 Boepd – EV $47 billion
- Repsol ( REP; com) – Spain – 560,000 Boepd – EV $33 billion
Most oil well cement slurries will be added to some additives in order to modify cement properties so cement operation can be properly performed. In this article, it will cover some of important cement additives in general terms so that it will help you understand the basic function of each additive.
Accelerators are added to shorten the time for cement to properly set and it will reduce rig time while waiting on the cement (WOC). Accelerators are crucial in shallow depths where bottom temperature is low. In the deeper section, it may not require an accelerator, because the well is hot enough and the thickening time will be normal. The WOC time is generally based on the time required to obtain 500 psi compressive strength of the cement.
Chemical used as accelerators are as follows;
- Calcium chloride 1.5 – 2.0 %
- Sodium chloride 2.0 – 2.5%
- Sea water
If the percentage of these additives is high, they will act as retarders instead of accelerators. Continue reading
ALGIERS (Reuters) – OPEC agreed on Wednesday to cut its oil output for the first time since 2008, with the group’s leader Saudi Arabia softening its stance on arch-rival Iran amid mounting pressure from low oil prices.
Two sources in the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries said the group would reduce output to 32.5 million barrels per day from current production of 33.24 million bpd.
How much each country will produce is to be decided at the next formal meeting of OPEC in November, when an invitation to join cuts could also be extended to non-OPEC countries such as Russia, sources said.
OPEC logo is pictured ahead of an informal meeting between members of the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) in Algiers, Algeria September 28, 2016. (REUTERS Photo)
Oil prices LCOc1 jumped more than 5 percent to trade above $48 per barrel as of 1830 GMT after the outcome of OPEC’s informal meeting in Algeria took traders by surprise. Still, many said they wanted to see the details of the deal. Continue reading
This is the big oil discovery in Texas, USA. Shale oil/gas technology made shale production profitable.
Have you ever worked on any shale oil/gas project?
Please feel free to share your experience in the comment below.
An overlooked corner of West Texas is believed to contain billions of barrels of newly-discovered shale oil.
Apache revealed the huge find this week after more than two years of stealthily buying up land, extensive geological research and rigorous testing.
The Houston company estimates the discovery, dubbed “Alpine High,” could be worth at least $8 billion.
Apache believes the new shale play spans at least five formations, contains over three billion barrels of oil and 75 trillion cubic feet of rich natural gas.
“We feel very confident with what we have and believe this is a story that’s only going to get better,” Apache CEO John Christmann IV told CNNMoney.
Apache Energy’s huge shale oil discovery in West Texas, named “Alpine High,” is estimated to contain three billion barrels of crude.(CNN Money)