## Shut in Procedures and Their Importance

Shut in Well Procedures

The shut in procedure must be developed and practiced for every rig activity such as:

• Shut in while drilling
• Shut in while tripping
• Shut in while running casing, tubing, completion, etc.
• Shut in while performing workover operation
• Shut in while logging
• Shut in while performing drill stem test

What is the main reason why we need to have the shut in procedure and frequently practice it?

## Possible Kick (wellbore influx) Indications Part2

This is the second part of the possible kick indications that I would like to share with you.

Decrease in d-Exponent Value

Normally, trends of d-Exponent will increase as we drill deeper, but this value will decrease to lower values than what we expect in transition zones. By closely monitored d-Exponent, d-Exponent chart will be useful for people on the rig to notify the high pressure transition zones.

Read and understand about d-Exponent and learn how to calculate d-Exponent and normalized d-Exponent (corrected d-Exponent)

## Possible Kick (wellbore influx) Indications Part1

Possible Kick Indications mean that there is possibility to get influx into wellbore. The indications can be either kick or just formation react while drilling. You need to remember that just only a single possible indicator cannot may not good enough to identify underbalanced condition in wellbore and the possible kick indicators must be used collectively. Therefore, drilling team on the rig needs to closely monitor the well and prepare appropriate action plans.

The possible kick indications are as follows;

## Bottom Hole Pressure Relationship

This article will show you about bottom hole pressure relationship because this concept is very important for well control concept. The bottom hole pressure is a summation of all the pressure acting on the bottom hole.

Bottom Hole Pressure (BHP) = Surface Pressure (SP) + Hydrostatic Pressure (HP)

The image below demonstrates the relationship of bottom hole pressure.

Note: BHP created by hydrostatic column of drilling fluid is the primary well control in drilling.

Looking more into details,

If BHP is more than FP (formation pressure), this situation is called “Overbalance”.

If BHP is equal to FP (formation pressure), this situation is called “Balance”.

If BHP is less than FP (formation pressure), this situation is called “Underbalance”.

For more understanding, please follow this example below it demonstrates the relationship of BHP, SP and HP.

Bottom Hole Pressure (BHP) = Surface Pressure (SP) + Hydrostatic Pressure (HP)

We assume that formation pressure is normal pressure gradient of water (0.465 psi/ft) so formation pressure at 8000’ TVD = 8000 ft x 0.465 psi/ft = 3720 psi. Click here to learn how to calculate hydrostatic pressure in oilfield.

The first case: Hydrostatic column is water which is equal to formation pressure gradient so SP is equal to 0 psi

The second case: BHP is still be water gradient but fluid column is oil (0.35 psi/ft) which is lower density than water gradient (0.465 psi/ft). Therefore, in order to balance BHP, we need Surface Pressure (SP) of 920 psi (SP = 3720 – (0.35 x 8000)).

The third case: BHP is still be water gradient but fluid column is gas (0.1 psi/ft) which is even lower density than water gradient (0.465 psi/ft). Therefore, in order to balance BHP, we need Surface Pressure (SP) of 2,920 psi (SP = 3720 – (0.1 x 8000)).

According to the example, Surface Pressure (SP) will compensate the lack of hydrostatic pressure (HP) in order to balance formation pressure (FP).

References

Cormack, D. (2007). An introduction to well control calculations for drilling operations. 1st ed. Texas: Springer.

Crumpton, H. (2010). Well Control for Completions and Interventions. 1st ed. Texas: Gulf Publishing.

Grace, R. (2003). Blowout and well control handbook [recurso electrónico]. 1st ed. Paises Bajos: Gulf Professional Pub.

Grace, R. and Cudd, B. (1994). Advanced blowout & well control. 1st ed. Houston: Gulf Publishing Company.

Watson, D., Brittenham, T. and Moore, P. (2003). Advanced well control. 1st ed. Richardson, Tex.: Society of Petroleum Engineers.

## What is Tertiary Well Control?

Can you imagine if primary and secondary well control are failed? Well is flowing all the time so how can we deal with this situation? For this situation, you must use Tertiary Well Control.

Tertiary Well Control is specific method used to control well in case of failure of primary and secondary well control. These following examples are tertiary well control:

• Drill relief wells to hit adjacent well that is flowing and kill the well with heavy mud.

BP Macondo Well – Relief Wells

• Dynamic kill by rapidly pumping of heavy mud to control well with Equivalent Circulating Density (ECD)
• Pump barite or gunk to plug wellbore to stop flowing
• Pump cement to plug wellbore

References

Coleman, S. (2018). Well Control Quiz Online. [online] Well Control Quiz Online – Test Your Well Control Knowledge for Free. Available at: http://wellcontrolquiz.com/ [Accessed 2 Aug. 2018].

Cormack, D. (2007). An introduction to well control calculations for drilling operations. 1st ed. Texas: Springer.

Crumpton, H. (2010). Well Control for Completions and Interventions. 1st ed. Texas: Gulf Publishing.

Grace, R. (2003). Blowout and well control handbook [recurso electrónico]. 1st ed. Paises Bajos: Gulf Professional Pub.

Grace, R. and Cudd, B. (1994). Advanced blowout & well control. 1st ed. Houston: Gulf Publishing Company.

Watson, D., Brittenham, T. and Moore, P. (2003). Advanced well control. 1st ed. Richardson, Tex.: Society of Petroleum Engineers.