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## Pressure Required to Break Circulation in Annulus

From the previous post, we learn about how to determine break circulating pressure inside drill string. This post we will learn about how to calculate pressure required to break circulation in annulas.

Formula to calculate pressure required overcoming the mud’s gel strength in the annulus as follow:

Pgs = y ÷ [300 x (Dh, in. – Dp, in.)] x L

where Pgs = pressure required to break gel strength, psi

L = length of drill string, ft

y = 10 mm. gel strength of drilling fluid, lb/100 sq ft

Dh = hole diameter, in.

Dp = pipe diameter, in.

Let’s take a look at the example below and understand how to determine pressure required to break circulation in the annulus by using following information

L = 11,500 ft

y = 12 lb/100 sq ft

Dh = 6.5 in.

Dp = 4.0 in.

Referring to the formula above, all parameters can simply input into the formula to get the break circulation pressure in the annulus.

Pgs = 12 ÷ [300 x (6.5 – 4.0)] x 11,500 ft

Pgs = 184.0 psi

Please find the Excel sheet for calculating the pressure required for break circulation in the annulus.

Ref book: Formulas and Calculations for Drilling, Production and Workover, Second Edition

## Pressure Required to Break Circulation Inside Drillstring

When we need to break circulation after mud in static condition, we need certain pressure to break mud gel strength. You may see that higher gel strength of mud, the higher pressure is required breaking circulation. So this post demonstrates how to determine pressure required breaking mud gel strength inside a drillstring.

Formula to calculate pressure required overcoming the mud’s gel strength inside the drill string as follow:

Pgs = (y ÷ 300 ÷ d) L

where Pgs = pressure required to break gel strength in psi

y = 10 mm gel strength of drilling fluid in lb/100 sq ft

d = inside diameter of drill pipe in inch

L = length of drill string in ft

Determine pressure required to break circulation inside the drill string by using following information

y = 12 lb/100 sq ft

d = 3.32 inch

L= 11,500 ft

Pgs = (12 ÷ 300 ÷ 3.32) x 11,500 ft

Pgs = 138.6 psi

Therefore, approximately 139 psi would be required to break circulation inside drill string.

Please find the Excel sheet for calculating the pressure required for break circulation inside drill string.

Ref book: Formulas and Calculations for Drilling, Production and Workover, Second Edition

## Decrease oil/water ratio

Decrease oil/water ratio: The concept of decrease oil water ratio is to increase water volume in the system without any changes in oil volume to meet new oil water ratio.

How can we decrease oil water ratio to 70/30?

Let’s make it simple so I still use the same information as my previous post. We start with 100 bbl of mud and we have the following information from the retort analysis.

Retort analysis:

% by volume oil = 56

% by volume water = 14

% by volume solids = 30

According to this retort analysis, the oil water ratio is 80/20 (learn how to calculate oil water ratio from a retort analysis) and there are 56 bbl of oil, 14 bbl of water and 30 bbl of solid from 100 bbl of mud.

In order to decrease oil water ratio, water must be added but oil volume remains the same. Therefore, 56 bbl of oil will represent 70% of oil ratio for the new system. We give X equals to the new total liquid volume (combination of oil and water volume).

Then; 70 = (56×100) ÷X

X = 80.0 bbl

Total liquid volume is equal to 80.0 bbl.

Oil volume is still the same but water volume will be added into the system. With this concept, the volume of water will added into the system can be described with the following relationship;

Water added = new total liquid volume – original volume

Water added = 80 – 70 = 10 bbl

If you have the total mud volume of 300 bbl, you will need 30 bbl of water added (10 x 300 ÷ 100) in order to decrease oil water ratio from 80/20 to 70/30

Ref book: Formulas and Calculations for Drilling, Production and Workover, Second Edition

## Increase oil/water ratio

The concept of increase oil water ratio is to increase oil volume in the system without any changes in water to meet new oil water ratio.

How can we increase oil water ratio from 80/20 to 85/15?

Let’s make it simple to understand. We start with 100 bbl of mud and we have the following information from the retort analysis.

Retort analysis:

% by volume oil = 56

% by volume water = 14

% by volume solids = 30

According to this retort analysis (learn how to calculate oil water ratio), the oil water ratio is 80/20 and there are 56 bbl of oil, 14 bbl of water and 30 bbl of solid from 100 bbl of mud. In order to increase oil water ratio, oil must be added and water volume remains the same. Therefore, 14 bbl of water will represent only 15% of water ratio for the new system. We give X equals to the new total liquid volume.

Then; 15 = (14×100)÷X

X = 93.33 bbl

Total new liquid volume is 93.33 bbl

Barrel of base oil added per 100 bbl of mud

Oil added = new total liquid volume – original volume

Oil added = 93.33 – 70 = 23.33 bbl

It means that you need to add oil 23.33 bbl per 100 bbl of original mud without adding any volume of water in order to achieve 85/15 oil water ratio.

Please find the Excel sheet for calculating how to increase oil water  ratio.

Ref book: Formulas and Calculations for Drilling, Production and Workover, Second Edition

## Calculate Oil-Water Ratio from Retort Data

Oil Water Ratio (OWR) is a figure representing the fraction of oil and water in oil based drilling mud.  Generally speaking, it is a ratio between the percent oil in liquid phase and the percent water in liquid phase. In order to determine OWR, volume of oil/water/solid in drilling mud comes from a retort analysis. A sample of oil based mud is controlled burnt in a retort kit at required temperature. When the mud is heated, water and oil will be extracted out and solid is left in the retort kit. The retort analysis report shows percentage of each component by volume so we use data from the retort analysis to determine oil water ratio.

Retort kits, OilfieldPix.com 2017

The formulas below demonstrate how to calculate oil water ratio from retort data.

a) % oil in liquid phase = (% by volume oil x 100) ÷ (% by volume oil + % by volume water)

b) % water in liquid phase = (% by volume water x 100) ÷ (% by volume oil + % by volume water)

c) Result: The oil/water ratio equals to the percent oil in liquid phase and the percent water in liquid phase.

Example: Determine oil water ratio from following information

Data from a retort analysis:

% by volume oil = 56

% by volume water = 14

% by volume solids = 30

Solution:

a) % oil in liquid phase = (56 x 100) ÷ (56+14)

% oil in liquid phase = 80

b) % water in liquid phase = (14 x 100) ÷ (56+14)

% water in liquid phase = 20

c) According to this retort report, the oil/water ratio equals to 80/20.

Ref books: Lapeyrouse, N.J., 2002. Formulas and calculations for drilling, production and workover, Boston: Gulf Professional publishing.

Bourgoyne, A.J.T., Chenevert , M.E. & Millheim, K.K., 1986. SPE Textbook Series, Volume 2: Applied Drilling Engineering, Society of Petroleum Engineers.

Mitchell, R.F., Miska, S. & Aadny, B.S., 2011. Fundamentals of drilling engineering, Richardson, TX: Society of Petroleum Engineers.