## Burst (Internal Yield Pressure) Property of Tubular

Burst is a condition where internal pressure exceeds pressure loading. Burst can happen in several situations, such as well control, pressure test casing/tubing, pumping operation, etc.

Figure 1 – Burst Pressure Diagram

Minimum burst rating pressure (internal yield pressure) can be calculated by the following equation.

Where;

## Tesile Property of Pipe

Oil field tubular is typically designed to work under its minimum yield strength so it means that the tubular will work with tensile load within the elastic limit. This article will discuss about tensile properties and how to determine tensile of oilfield tubular.

## Important Material Properties of Tubular and Completion String

It is imperative to understand mechanical properties of tubular because it involves the safety structure of the well. Failure in completion can cause major catastrophic problems in people safety, major loss of expenditure and loss of production from a well.

## Basic Sand Control Methods in Oil and Gas Industry

Sand control is a method to control sand production into a wellbore. This is common requirement for several oil and gas producing wells around the world. There are two situations which cause sand production. The first cause is rock mechanical failure near wellbore and the second one is dragging force from producing or injection fluid. Sand production can lead to several issues such as production impairment due to sand plugging, erosion to completion string and down hole tool, damage surface facilities as separator, piping, etc.

In order to avoid sand production, there are two main methods as listed below;

# Passive sand control

This method uses non-intrusive measures to control, mitigate or avoid sand production from the reservoir. The following techniques are passive sand control methods.

• Oriented perforation
• Selective perforation
• Sand management

# Active sand control

This method relies on the use of filters to control sand production and it is known as intrusive measure. The following techniques are active sand control methods.

• Stand alone screens (slotted liner, wire-wrapped screen, prepacked screen and premium screen)
• Expandable sand screen
• Gravel pack & Frack Pack
• Chemical consolidation

## Multiple Zone Completion

Multiple zone completion is one type of completion which allows operators to selectively produce or comingle reservoir fluid from different zones into one well.  It is also possible to workover the upper part of completion string without removing the next interval completion.  Additionally, through tubing perforation is can  performed at the bottom zone.  A multiple zone completion can be divided into two parts, which are single string completion and multiple string completion.